Conceived and designed the experiments: LK LL. Performed the experiments: LK. Analyzed the data: LK.L32 engine for sale
Wrote the paper: LK LL. China's rural-urban dual society system is instituted by its unique hukou system. This system causes inequalities in social status between permanent urban and rural residents, and discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants is thus prevalent. A series of studies, based on system justification theory, sought to address the impact of the hukou system on the discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants.
Study 1 showed that the justification of the hukou system could predict discrimination operationalized using a social distance measure. Study 2 found that priming of the proposed abolishment of the current hukou system led to reduced social distance. Study 3using a recruiting scenario, further demonstrated that priming of the proposed abolishment of the system led to reduced discrimination in salary decision.
Consistent with our predictions, discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants could be triggered by justifying the current hukou system, while priming of the abolishment of the system serves to decrease discrimination. The present research thereby sheds light on China's reform of its hukou system to achieve social justice and equality from a psychological perspective. Discrimination against marginalized groups is a global psychosocial phenomenon, but it retains its local character in a given social, cultural, and economic context.
From a local perspective, discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, due to the unique hukou system, is salient in China  — .How to find router username and password with cmd
However, the role of social institutions, such as the hukou system, in discrimination is still subject to scientific debate. The aim of the current study is to explore the impact of the hukou system and its reform on discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants.Lafudhi na lahaja
Beginning in the s, the Chinese government officially promulgated its hukou system to differentiate residential groups  — . The hukou system was seen as an indispensable feature of Chinese socialist economic planning and was designed to forestall rural-to-urban migration . Every citizen is required to register at their permanent residence, as registration under the hukou system is the principal means of establishing one's official status in China .
One's hukou status is inherited from one's mother and thus is predetermined. While initially conceived as an instrument for internal migration control, the hukou system was soon transformed into a social institution dividing Chinese society into spatial hierarchies . There is a dual classification in a person's hukou. As a result, urban residents were seen as superior to rural residents in terms of socio-economic status.
Since its shift towards economic liberalism in the s, China has initiated a variety of reforms to the hukou system.High urbanization pressure in Sub-Saharan Africa led to changes in the composition and configuration of rural and peri-urban agricultural production systems and to the establishment of highly market-oriented urban farming systems. Trees and shrubs, as a key component of agroecosystems, provide ecosystem services that support food security and agricultural productivity.
However, the relationship between landscape structure, land use intensification, species diversity and functional diversity of woody plant communities particularly within the semi-arid environment of West Africa has received little attention.
We combined GIS analyses and field sampling of woody plant communities of 72 agricultural systems located in rural, peri-urban and urban areas of Tamale Ghana and Ouagadougou Burkina Faso. From a landscape perspective, peri-urban systems in Ouagadougou formed a transition or interacting zone between rural and urban systems and were shaped by urban growth dynamics whereas in Tamale peri-urban systems constituted a simplification of the rural parkland habitats and was mainly determined by agricultural intensification.
Woody plant communities showed a high functional richness along the rural-urban gradient and provided a variety of ecosystem services, with food provisioning as main good.Wide body kit bolts
A trade-off between two regulating services, bio-control of pests and pollination services, could be observed within urban and in part within peri-urban farming systems. Hence, obtaining a holistic understanding of how landscape structure that is shaped by city growth and agricultural intensification affects ecosystem services is fundamental if West African urban farmers are to be politically supported in their efforts to manage landscapes effectively and to ensure agro-ecosystem multi-functionality and productivity.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Amakpe F, Akouehou GS, de Graaf DC, Sinsin B Determination of the silvo-melliferous regions of Benin: a nationwide categorisation of the land based on melliferous plants suitable for timber production. JARTS 2 — Google Scholar. J Ag Eng — J Stat Softw — Agric Ecosyst Environ 71 1 — Curr Opin Environ Sustain — Agric Ecosyst Environ — R package version —4.
International Water Management Institute, Colombo. Landsc Urban Plan — Bierwagen BG Connectivity in urbanizing landscapes: the importance of habitat configuration, urban area size, and dispersal. Urban Ecosyst 10 1 — Agric Ecosyst Environ —9. Urban Ecosyst 16 4 — Clark KH, Nicholas KA Introducing urban food forestry: a multifunctional approach to increase food security and provide ecosystem services. Landsc Ecol 28 9 —Fiona MarshallPritpal Randhawa.
In India, peri-urban areas are too often neglected. Many people live in poverty and face increasing marginalisation and food insecurity. Yet peri-urban agriculture could be a major contributor to poverty alleviation and food security. This working paper examines rural-urban transformations in India in relation to changes in food production, access, consumption, nutritional quality and safety. To improve health and nutrition, a more holistic, food security-based perspective is needed.
Policy and planning must support those fragile communities engaged in peri-urban agriculture while protecting the environmental services on which they depend.
It also discusses examples of specific policies and programmes and considers knowledge gaps, governance challenges and mechanisms that might help facilitate pro-poor food security developments on the ground. Urbanisation drives profound transformations in rural areas and in food systems, presenting both challenges and opportunities for poverty reduction, rural development and food security.
Policies at the local, national, regional and global scales are of critical importance in shaping rural-urban linkages and the political economy of food systems. More at www. Information for IIED. Fiona MarshallPritpal Randhawa Working paper, 40 pages.
Urbanization has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of workers in industrial and service enterprises. Globally, agriculture has met the demands from this rapidly growing urban population, including food that is more energy- land- water- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive.
But hundreds of millions of urban dwellers suffer under-nutrition. So the key issues with regard to agriculture and urbanization are whether the growing and changing demands for agricultural products from growing urban populations can be sustained while at the same time underpinning agricultural prosperity and reducing rural and urban poverty.
Urbanization and its implications for food and farming
To this are added the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to build resilience in agriculture and urban development to climate change impacts. The paper gives particular attention to low- and middle-income nations since these have more than three-quarters of the world's urban population and most of its largest cities and these include nations where issues of food security are most pressing.
Inworldwide, there were 6. This has been underpinned by the rapid growth in the world economy and in the proportion of gross world product and of the economically active population working in industry and services since most industrial and service enterprises are in urban areas.
Globally, agricultural production has managed to meet the demands from a rapid growth in the proportion of the workforce not producing food and rapid changes in food demands towards more energy- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive food.
However, hundreds of millions of urban dwellers face under-nutrition today, although this is far more related to their lack of income than to a lack of capacity to produce food. Much is made of the fact that inthe world's urban population exceeded its rural population for the first time. Less attention has been given to two other transitions: aroundthe economically active population employed in industry and services exceeded that employed in the primary sector agriculture, forestry, mining and fishing ; and aroundthe economic value generated by industry and services exceeded that generated by the primary sector Satterthwaite In addition, the figure might be higher if the value of food produced by rural and urban dwellers for their own consumption is taken into account.
UN projections suggest that the world's urban population will grow by more than a billion people between andwhile the rural population will hardly grow at all United Nations It is likely that the proportion of the global population not producing food will continue to grow, as will the number of middle and upper income consumers whose dietary choices are more energy- and greenhouse gas emission-intensive and often more land-intensive and where such changes in demand also bring major changes in agriculture and in the supply chain.
Two key demographic changes currently under way and likely to continue in the next few decades are the decline in population growth rates and the ageing of the population. The precise demographic definition of urbanization is the increasing share of a nation's population living in urban areas and thus a declining share living in rural areas. Most urbanization is the result of net rural to urban migration. The level of urbanization is the share itself, and the rate of urbanization is the rate at which that share is changing.
This definition makes the implications of urbanization distinct from those of urban population growth or those of the physical expansion of urban areas, both of which are often treated as synonymous with urbanization.
A nation's urban population can grow from natural increase births minus deathsnet rural to urban migration and reclassification as what was previously a rural settlement becomes classified as urban or as an urban settlement's boundaries are expanded, bringing into its population people who were previously classified as rural. Nations with rapid economic growth and relatively low rates of natural increase such as China over the past few decades have most of their urban population growth from urbanization; nations with little or no economic growth and high rates of natural increase including many sub-Saharan African nations during the s have most of their urban population growth from natural increase see Potts Differences in rural and urban rates of natural increase influenced by differences in fertility and mortality rates also influence urbanization, although generally these act to reduce urbanization.
The term urbanization is also used for the expansion of urban land uses. The conventional definition for urbanization used in this paper entails a shift in settlement patterns from dispersed to more dense settlement.
By way of contrast, much of the expansion of urban land use is the result of a shift from dense to more dispersed settlement. In effect, the term urbanization is being used to refer to two opposing spatial shifts in settlement patterns, likely to have opposing effects on, for example, the land available for agriculture.
Many development professionals see urbanization as a problem. Yet, no nation has prospered without urbanization and there is no prosperous nation that is not predominantly urban.In this chapter, we deliberate upon the role of the non-farm sector in the food systems. We highlight the role of the non-farm sector for job creation in rural areas, especially along the rural-urban continuum for structural transformation to take place. Policy has not yet leveraged the potential of small towns and the peri-urban spaces as a means to create new job opportunities.
We focus on these blurring of the rural-urban distinction which provide an opportunity to diversify the portfolio of economic opportunities available to rural households, thereby enabling greater rural income and improved access to food and nutrition.
Narratives around poverty, hunger, food security and nutrition—largely subsumed in the food system—are intrinsically linked to the development of the rural economy. Rural economic structure is constantly reshaped by forces of urbanization, expanding markets, returns to livelihood opportunities, changes in land use patterns and the inherent socio-demographic structure of villages.
Also, the reliance on cultivation as the main source of livelihood in rural areas is declining with the growth of smaller towns and non-farm livelihood opportunities. Thus, the future of agricultural work will look very different from what we have seen. As a result, home consumption declines and food security concerns progressively become an issue of access rather than availability.
To enhance access to nutrition and food, when most households progressively become net consumers of food, household income becomes the most important instrument for improving welfare. The development world has taken note of the fact that income diversification is key to rural development, poverty reduction and food security and the same applies to India as well. Pathways from agriculture to nutrition mostly assume farming—as a source of income and food—to be the most important means to access food in rural economies.
However, a greater share of households in rural India now rely on markets to access food. Livelihood and income diversification out of farming have been considered as desirable for enabling greater structural transformation. The analytical lens of a food system approach here is particularly helpful in imagining rural as farm production and beyond—encompassing various food-related non-farm activities such as storage, processing, distribution and transportation of food in addition to many other services which do not necessarily fall within the realm of food production but provide livelihood opportunities to the rural population.
Livelihood diversification and non-farm employment are important levers for rural economic growth. It was believed that agricultural growth through productivity-enhancing strategies could generate economy-wide growth multipliers, leading to across-the-board income growth and employment generation. While agricultural growth did propel growth and structural transformation in many countries, demographic pressure, preponderance of small farms, declining share of household income from agriculture and commercialization have changed the role of agriculture in future economic growth.
Hazell recognizes a growing differentiation within the agricultural sectors of developing countries.Improving human and environmental health in peri-urban areas - 1/11/17 - M. Ann Tutwiler
The development strategy path followed by a nation, therefore, is central to how the food equation balances. Change in the agricultural workforce. Labor share by state classification.
These gains, however, were limited to regions which could specialize in the production of staple crops and had better agro-climatic endowments, irrigation and road infrastructure and institutional structures that allowed for better governance of natural resources, such as land and water rights.
It is a widely accepted fact that agricultural households engage in a wide range of economic activities apart from cultivation. For the first time, ina greater share of Indian population worked in the non-farm sector. In an interview, Dr. Now two-third of the economy of rural India is non agriculture and only one-third is agriculture.
We recognise that one or two acres will not give them income, they have to earn from other sources. In many cases it is already happening, but we have to move as a development strategy. Investing in the growth of the non-farm sector is hailed as an important development strategy because of its potential for the redistribution of incomes.
First, by producing more affordable and lower quality goods consumed mostly by the poor, rural industrial production leads to lower local prices. Second, non-farm economic opportunities provide a source of employment to those for whom agriculture may not provide sustenance and therefore helps to absorb the growing rural labor force, especially in the states which are lagging. Third, through increasing rural livelihood avenues, these types of economic activities help slow down temporary migration ibid.
As the central agrarian question in India remains the availability of productive land, non-farm sector helps maintain income for the landless and the smallholder. Land fragmentation leads to a reduction in the mean plot size below the threshold beyond which mechanization becomes a challenge. While redistribution of land is not a politically attractive option and the consolidation of holdings is operationally challenging, promotion of non-farm opportunities seems to be a more pragmatic way of increasing the income of smallholders and other rural poor.
Given the greater pro-poor incidence of non-farm income, historically marginalized sections of the rural society—which have lower access to land and capital—have benefited substantially from the non-farm sector employment despite its casual nature. Reduction in inequality requires greater access to non-farm jobs which are formal. The important question, however, is to understand the nature of non-farm sector to understand its welfare implications.The implications of administrative definitions.
The difference between urban centres and rural areas may seem so obvious that definitions should not be an issue.Raccoglitori
However, there can be major variations in the ways in which different nations define what is an urban centre. The criteria used include population size and density, and availability of services such as secondary schools, hospitals and banks. However, the combination of criteria applied can vary greatly.
Rural Livelihood Challenges: Moving out of Agriculture
Even the population thresholds used can be different: for many African nations it is 5, inhabitants, while for most Latin American and European nations it can be as low as 2, or 2, or even just a few hundreds inhabitants. Outside the city boundaries: the peri-urban interface. The physical boundaries of urban built-up areas often do not coincide with their administrative boundaries.
The areas surrounding urban centers generally have an important role in providing food for urban consumers, with proximity lowering the costs of transport and storage. It is difficult to make generalizations on the nature of peri-urban areas, which depends on the combination of a number of factors including the economic and infrastructural base of the urban center, the region and the nation; the historical, social and cultural characteristics of the area, and its ecological and geographical features.
Peri-urban areas around one center are also not necessarily homogenous: high- and middle-income residential developments may dominate one section, while others may host industrial estates and others provide cheap accommodation to low-income migrants in informal settlements. The peri-urban interface around larger or more prosperous urban centres is also the location where processes of urbanisation are at their most intense and where some of the most obvious environmental impacts of urbanisation are located.
They are often characterised by:. Variations in the characteristics of peri-urban areas can be important. For example, in the growing number of extended metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, agriculture, small-scale industry, industrial estates and suburban residential developments co-exist side by side. Availability and affordability of transport are essential for the intense movement of goods and the extreme mobility of the population. In other contexts, and especially in less industry-based economies such as many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, agriculture still prevails in peri-urban areas although often with significant shifts in land ownership and use.
This is especially the case where smallholder productivity is low because of the increasing costs of inputs and limited credit availability. Other problems include poor access to urban markets due to a lack of roads and physical infrastructure and the tight control over access to the urban market-places by middlemen and large traders.
Thus, despite proximity to urban consumers, small farmers may be easily squeezed out, especially as the value of land in peri-urban areas increases with the expansion of the built-up center.
Most cities draw heavily on their surrounding regions for freshwater resources. Most urban wastes end up in the region surrounding the city, for example, solid wastes disposed of on peri-urban land sites either official or illegal and liquid wastes either piped or finding their way through run-offs into rivers, lakes or other water bodies close by.
Peri-urban areas may also be affected by urban air pollution. Understanding rural-urban differences and rural-urban linkages. Access to land for housing and building materials not generally a problem.
Access to infrastructure and services limited largely because of distance, low density and limited capacity to pay? Fewer opportunities for earning cash; more for self-provisioning. Greater reliance on favorable weather conditions. Access to land for housing very difficult; housing and land markets highly commercialized.
Access to infrastructure and services difficult for low-income groups because of high prices, illegal nature of their homes for many and poor governance. Greater reliance on cash for access to food, water, sanitation, employment, garbage disposal These should be regarded as two ends of a continuum with most urban and rural areas falling somewhere between these extremes. For instance, many of the areas around prosperous cities or on corridors linking cities have a multiplicity of non-farm enterprises and a considerable proportion of the economically active population that commute daily to the city or find work seasonally or temporarily in urban areas.
Many rural areas also have tourist industries that have fundamentally changed employment structures and environmental pressures. Governing across and beyond the rural-urban boundary.Peri-urban regions can be defined as 'superficial' rural areas that are within the orbit of immediate urban hubs, in other words, areas that surround large population centers. Peri-urban agriculture is generally defined as agriculture undertaken in places on the fringes of urban areas. However, peri-urban agriculture can be described differently depending on the myriad of urban-rural relationships, and the different farming systems within the various cities and contrasting regions around the world.
These are places with dynamic landscape and social change and are often invoked in conversations about growth of cities. Peri-urban agriculture is first and foremost "the production and distribution of food, fiber and fuel in and around cities". The concept of peri-urban has become prevalent as a result of limitations in the dichotomy between rural areas and urban areas. Historically, rural and urban land have been viewed as two separate economic systems with few interactions.
Often, these arguments refer to the disappearance and urbanization of rural land. Peri-urban land falls along the continuum of urban to rural land and recognizes links between the two. Urban and peri-urban agriculture is expected to become increasingly important for food security and nutrition as rural land is built up.
India’s peri-urban frontier: rural-urban transformations and food security
It is predicted to be particularly key for growing perishable produce accessible to the approximately million urban residents already living in developing countriesespecially because most growth is expected to take place in urban areas of developing countries. Urban and peri-urban agriculture tend to differ in their form and their purpose. Peri-urban farming more often consists of units close to town which operate intensive semi- or fully commercial farms to grow vegetables and other horticultureraise chickens and other livestock, and produce milk and eggs.
Peri-urban livestock production is often based on small ruminants such as goats and sheep, which occupy less space than cows and bulls, are subjects of virtually no religious tabooscan provide both meat and milkand generally reproduce at two to three years old.
Peri-urban agriculture provides environmental benefits by preserving or creating urban open space in city edges where green space may be threatened by expanding urbanization. In addition to aestheticspreservation and creation of green space has positive climatic effects including augmenting carbon sequestrationreducing the urban heat island effect, and providing a habitat for organisms.
Urban and peri-urban agricultural systems can improve urban environments through provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ecosystem services. Also, the increase of food production capacity in urban and peri-urban areas allows the decrease of the conversions of non-agricultural land to farmland. For agricultural sustainability is not only about agricultural production but also about managing the landscapes surrounding the agricultural activities.
Urban and peri-urban agriculture zones are key drivers for sustainability and urban biodiversity.
Biodiversity favors resilience  by supporting and mitigating the negative impacts of the built environment by hosting a diversity of fauna and flora. High levels of air pollution are present in urban centers which can have negative effects on human health,  therefore urban and peri-urban agriculture can help mitigate greenhouse gas emissions GHG through carbon storage and carbon sequestration.
The production of local food contributes to food security and food safety,  by shortening the supply chain and reducing transportation. Alongside supporting and regulating ecosystem services, urban and peri-urban systems have a cultural and traditional value, some consider urban and peri-urban agriculture as a form of leisure, whereas other as a way of maintaining and perpetuating cultural and traditional agricultural practices.
Peri-urban agriculture is multifunctional. The key elements of multifunctionality are commodity and non-commodity outputs. Commodity outputs are food and fiber, as well as marketable products such as tourism.
Non-commodity outputs include, food security, food safety, environmental protection, biodiversity, and a rural way of life. Also, the concept of multifunctionality is based on the idea of sustainable developmentit aims at integrating the information over time and the geography of land uses and functions beyond its traditional function of food production, to include nature conservation, hydrological balance, aesthetics and recreation. In developing countries, besides the question of food security, one significant social dimension of peri-urban agriculture, specifically around production sites, is the rebuilding of communities and civil society.
Studies have shown that urban gardening and farmingparticularly when done in a community setting, have positive effects on nutritionfitnessself-esteemand happiness, providing a benefit for both physical and mental health. Closely related to health is food securityor dependable access to adequate and nutritious food. Urban gardening may be an opportunity for the urban poor to produce food for themselves or to sell their products for income, adding to income security. Indeed, peri-urban agriculture can be advantageous because of the proximity of production to the consumer.
Particularly, the fresh fruits, vegetables and local foods that are available for communities and neighborhoods that live in food deserts. In addition, residents who share a plot of land may benefit from social interaction and recreation with others. In many urban areas peri-urban agriculture reduces the environmental impacts of urban expansion by serving as an ecological buffer.
Moreover, local production and consumption of foods reduces the consumption of energy due to shorter transportation distances, less packaging and processing, and greater efficiency in production inputs.
Comparatively to conventional food systems, the limited use of energy in peri-urban agriculture reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has lower impacts on global warming.The village of quarto superiore, municipality of asti (at) piemonte
The new business opportunities generated by peri-urban agriculture allow the creation of jobs and the generation of revenue, as well as improving local infrastructure and services, such as the construction of roads, schools,and restaurants.
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